How To Industrially Construct A Playground From Parts & Supplies



Forty years back, playgrounds were downright scary. If you prefer to construct a playground that will be suitable for your children even following a few decades, you may attempt to bring a zip line between spots in your backyard, which is definitely likely to just fascinate them. Furthermore, the playground ought to be specifically built, so it is easy to hear your children playing on the structure, nor forget that a leveled area is essential for the success of your DIY undertaking since the play area should sit correctly on the ground. Third, visiting the best playgrounds in Vancouver BC can help you make yours unique. Add pure features even when you are building a very simple playground, this doesn’t imply that you cannot enhance it by adding a couple of organic features, such as sand or climbing rocks. A bigger playground takes longer. Possessing a secure and effectual backyard playground is an excellent thing for children.

What is a Severe Service Valve Used For?

There are many types of valves and can be categorized into a number of basic types. If you group them according to how they are actuated, you will have five types; solenoid valve, motor, pneumatic valve, hydraulic and manual valve. Valves are made up of components that enable them to carry out their functions. Such components include disks, seats, stems, bodies, bonnets, ports, handles, valve balls, springs, trims and even gaskets.

What are severe service valves? When we asked CGIS, a well known name in the industry of severe service valves they told us: “These are simply control valves used in severe service conditions. By partially or fully opening control valves you can be able to regulate flow, temperature, pressure and liquid levels. They are widely used in hydrocarbon, power, pulp, and paper or chemical industries.”

axialmoroccoSizing calculations are performed to identify this control valve. Some of the information required for such calculations includes vapor pressure of liquids; temperature valve size; flow rate, upstream pressure and differential pressure at maximum, normal and minimum; fluid state. If a control valve does not violate the calculated threshold, it fails to be classified as an SSCV but rather a general purpose control valve.

An SSCV is selected depending on the threshold value. This is not done by anybody but rather experts/suppliers who have an insight in SSCV trims and features and major in controlled applications. In most cases the following conditions fall under severe services: compressor anti-surge, turbine by-pass, autoclave let-down, engine test stands, toxic/lethal service, boiler feed water, fluid with high outgassing potential, slurry control, choke valves, high-pressure separator drains, solar power molten salt, coal gasification, and minimum flow recycle.
The design of these valves has two flow mechanisms. Radial flow mechanism which is characterized by sudden contraction, small passage friction, surface impingement, direction change, mutual impingement, cavitation bubble isolation, turbulent mixing and sudden expansion. Axial flow is the second flow mechanism and has the following features: sudden impingement, direction change, sudden contraction and sudden expansion.

Examples of these valves include:

Cavitation control – curb the harmful effects of cavitation
Aerodynamic nose control – reduce noise compressible flows
Steam conditioning – regulate superheated steam to give the desired output
Engineering solutions – custom engineered for specified functions
However, since there are no national or world standards of identifying these valves, there is a risk of having a mix-up. This poses a major risk for those handling those valves due to counterfeit products. The ordinary worker is therefore placed in a precarious position. It is, therefore, imperative to work hand in hand with certified expert in both the supply and installation of these valves. When correctly identified and installed, the user grips many benefits such as saving workers’ lives and protecting our environment.

The Basics of Helicopter Manufacturing

Helicopters are marvels of the modern age. With their ability to take off and land vertically, and to carry enormous loads, helicopters have become the backbone of many civilian and military operations around the world. But, how are these vehicles made?


The first element of a helicopter to be manufactured is the airframe. Similar to the frame of a car, the airframe is the rigid skeleton on which all of the other elements of the helicopter will be laid. Generally, an airframe is made of lightweight metal tubing This tubing can be bent to exacting dimensions, but is still lightweight and rigid enough to remain strong but not so heavy as to keep the vehicle from achieving flight. Wherever these tubes meet, they are generally welded together and reinforced with plates or brackets called “gussets.” The tubing and gussets are chemically cleaned and treated to prevent corrosion, welded together, then inspected for flaws before moving on to the next steps.


At this point, sheet metal is added to the airframe to create both shape and mounting points for other parts of the assembly. A honeycomb shaped composite material called the “core” is then applied to create a lightweight insulation between interior and exterior body parts. This will help to prevent temperature change inside the cabin and block out some of the outside noise. The hollow structure of the cores also helps to reduce weight. Lightweight composite or fiberglass panels are then applied on top of the cores to create the exterior skin of the helicopter. Once dried and shaped, paint and trim may be added to the exterior in order to protect it from wear an to meet various aviation identification and visibility requirements.


The Engine, Transmission, and Rotors

At this point, the helicopter is merely an empty shell with no means of flight. Thus, an engine, transmission, and rotors must be added. Modern helicopters use turbine engines rather than the piston type engine one would find in an automobile. However, a transmissions sends mechanical power from the engine to the rotors in the same fashion a transmission in a car sends engine power to the wheels. It is also at this stage that it is extremely important that the helicopter be within a temperature controlled warehouse.

The rotors on the top and rear of the helicopter, arguably the most identifiable feature of any helicopter, are then added. The rotor blades are usually made of sheet metal with a composite layup applied and shaped over the top. Each rotor is given a slight teardrop shape along its horizontal access that resembles the wing of an airplane and for the same reason. This shape gives each blade lift and drag, just like an airplane’s wing does, and allows the spinning blades to carry the helicopter into the sky. The tail rotors use a similar principle to help steer the vehicle left and right.

Final Assembly and Inspection

Once the entire helicopter’s primary parts are assembled, the finishing touches can be applied. These include seats and cargo features, electronics, canopies, doors, windows, etc. After all of the systems have been installed and the helicopter is in its final form, it must undergo a rigorous inspection process. The vehicle is inspected and tested thoroughly on the ground, and then taken for test flights to ensure that nothing changes when the helicopter is in use.